Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Malaysia
Overview of greenhouse gases and emissions per capita in Malaysia. Are they prepared to meet net zero targets and invest in the energy transition?
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Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Malaysia
Overview of greenhouse gases and emissions per capita in Malaysia. Are they prepared to meet net zero targets and invest in the energy transition?
Published:
Loading reading time...
Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Malaysia
Overview of greenhouse gases and emissions per capita in Malaysia. Are they prepared to meet net zero targets and invest in the energy transition?
Published:
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What percentage of global greenhouse gas emissions does Malaysia produce?

Malaysia produced 0.67% of global greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 (the latest date with complete emissions data). This amounted to 302m metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, or MtCO₂e. These emissions represented a decrease from 2019 by 0%.

In the period from 1990 to 2020 their emissions have increased by a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.6% and Malaysia has contributed 0.54% of global greenhouse emissions.

CountryMalaysia
Population32.8m
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in USD$373bn
Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 2020302m
Change in Emissions since 20190%
Percentage of Total Emissions (2020)0.67%
Rank – Emitters in 202026
Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions since 19906.24bn
Compound Annual Growth – Emissions since 19904.6%
Percentage of Total Emissions (1990-2020)0.54%
GDP Per Capita (USD)$11.4k
Emissions Per Capita9.2

In 2020, Malaysia was the world’s 26th largest producer of greenhouse gas emissions. The largest emitters in the same period were China, the United States, India, Russia and Japan.

Emissions per capita in Malaysia – average household carbon footprint

The population of Malaysia is 32.8m. On a per capita basis, they produce 9.2 tonnes of CO2e per person, placing them 31st out of 191 on emissions produced per capita. The biggest per capita emitters are Qatar, Turkmenistan, Kuwait and Bahrain.

What is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in Malaysia?

Gases

81.1% of emissions in Malaysia came from Carbon Dioxide (CO2), 12.3% came from Methane (CH4), and 3.1% came from Nitrous Oxide (N2O).

Sectors

The sector that produced the most emissions in 2020 was the energy industry, producing 248m of GHG emissions, constituting 82% of total.

The second and third largest emitting sectors were land-use change and forestry and industrial processes, producing 21.7% and 7.5% of total GHG in Malaysia.

Energy

The industry that produced the most energy related emissions was the electricity/heat industry, producing 131m of GHG emissions, constituting 43.5% of total emissions.

The second and third largest emitting sectors were transportation and manufacturing/construction, emitting 61.4m and 32.9m tonnes of GHG each.

Land Use Change and Forestry

Land use change and forestry (LUCF), such as deforestation and conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural or urban areas, can have a significant impact on carbon emissions.

  • Trees and other vegetation absorb and store carbon through the process of photosynthesis, and when they are cut down or burned, that stored carbon is released into the atmosphere.
  • Deforestation and other forms of land use change can also reduce the ability of ecosystems to absorb and store carbon in the future. Additionally, the conversion of land for agriculture or urban development can lead to the release of carbon stored in the soil.
  • On the other hand, sustainable forestry practices, such as reforestation and afforestation, can help to remove carbon from the atmosphere and store it in trees and other vegetation.

In the case of Malaysia, LUCF had a negative impact on Malaysia’s emissions, increasing their carbon footprint by 65.7m tonnes.

After accounting for land use change and forestry, the total amount of greenhouse gas emissions in Malaysia in 2020 was 368m metric tonnes.

How vulnerable is Malaysia to the impact of climate change?

The Notre Dame Global Adaptation Initiative (ND-GAIN) Index

The ND-GAIN Index measures countries’ vulnerability to global challenges, including climate change, and their readiness to improve resilience.

Malaysia scores 56.9 on the ND-Gain Index and is classified in the ‘low vulnerability and high readiness’ category of climate change preparedness.

The index aims to assist businesses, governments, and communities in prioritising investments for a more efficient response to global shifts.

It is measured by combining two main components:

  1. Vulnerability: This evaluates a country’s vulnerability to environmental risks and its ability to adapt. It considers health, food and water availability, infrastructure, and ecosystem services. A higher score indicates greater vulnerability to environmental challenges.
  2. Readiness: This measures how well a country can leverage investments to mitigate climate change. It considers economic stability, governance, technology, and infrastructure. A higher score means a country is better prepared to implement resilience strategies.

This ranking helps identify areas where resources and adaptation strategies can be most effectively directed to mitigate risks and enhance resilience.

By combining these dimensions, the index provides a comprehensive approach to measuring countries’ ability to cope with the impacts of climate change.

Low vulnerability and high readiness in Malaysia

In terms of readiness to adapt to climate change, Malaysia ranks in the below average group. Globally, the average readiness score is 0.424, with Malaysia posting a score of 0.507.

They show the greatest strength in economic aspects, while their performance in social aspects requires improvement.

  • Economic readiness refers to the business environment and its capacity to adapt to climate change, emphasizing the importance of a supportive regulatory framework for adaptation initiatives.
  • Social readiness refers to the societal factors like inequality, education, and technology infrastructure that affect a country’s ability to adapt to and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

Regarding vulnerability to climate change, Malaysia falls into the below average category. Compared to the global average vulnerability score of 0.431, Malaysia has a score of 0.369.

Their resilience is most notable in infrastructure areas, yet they face significant challenges in habitat.

  • Infrastructure vulnerability refers to the weaknesses in the coastal protection, transportation, and energy systems, which are critical for building resilience against climate change. Coastal protection safeguards land and ports from rising sea levels and storms. Reliable transportation infrastructure is essential for corporate value chains and can be disrupted by extreme weather. Energy infrastructure resilience ensures a continuous supply of energy during natural disasters, maintaining economic stability.
  • Human habitat refers to the growth of cities and their capacity to withstand climate change impacts like floods and heatwaves. Improved infrastructure enhances urban resilience to extreme weather events.

The formula to calculate the ND-GAIN Index is

GAIN Index=(Readiness Indicators−Vulnerability Indicators+1)×50GAIN Index=(Readiness Indicators−Vulnerability Indicators+1)×50

In this formula:

  • The Readiness Indicators are measured on a scale of 0 to 1, where a higher score means that the readiness is better.
  • The Vulnerability Indicators are also measured on a scale of 0 to 1, but a lower score indicates better vulnerability in this case. 
  • The difference between the Readiness and Vulnerability scores is calculated and then incremented by 1. 
  • Finally, the result is multiplied by 50 to convert the GAIN Index score to a range of 0-100, where a higher score means the situation is better.

Is there a correlation between greenhouse gas emissions and economic growth in Malaysia?

In 2020, the gross domestic product (GDP) in Malaysia declined by -7.7% from the previous year, with the economy moving from $365bn to $337bn. During the same period, carbon emissions decreased by -0.02%. Over the ten-year period from 2010 to 2020, GDP grew 32.2%, while emissions increased by 21.6%.

To put this into context, the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of GDP in Malaysia over the past ten years was 2.8%, and the CAGR for greenhouse gas emissions was 2%.

Sources

World Resources Institute, 2022. Climate Watch Historical GHG Emissions. [online] Washington, DC. Available at: https://www.climatewatchdata.org/ghg-emissions.

Global Carbon Project, 2023. Supplemental data of Global Carbon Budget 2023 (Version 1.1) [Data set]. Global Carbon Project. Available at: https://doi.org/10.18160/gcp-2023.

UNFCCC, 2023. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data. [online] Available at: https://di.unfccc.int.

Notre Dame Global Adaptation Initiative, 2023. ND-GAIN Country Index. [online] Available at: https://gain.nd.edu.

FAO, 2022. Land-Use Change and Forestry or Agriculture indicators from FAOSTAT Emissions Database. [online] Available at: https://www.fao.org/faostat/.

OECD/IEA, 2022. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. [online] Available at: https://www.iea.org/reports/co2-emissions-in-2022.

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