Overview of carbon emissions produced by Luxembourg
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What percentage of global greenhouse gas emissions does Luxembourg produce?

Luxembourg produces 0.02% of global emissions, and has been ranked the world’s 136th largest emitter of greenhouse gases since 1990. Since this date, their annual emissions have decreased by a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of -0.43%.

Summary – GHG Emissions in Luxembourg

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in USD$86.7bn
Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 201910.2m
Change in Emissions since 20181.7%
Percentage of Total Emissions (2019)0.02%
Rank – Emitters in 2019142
Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions since 1990316m
Compound Annual Growth – Emissions since 1990-0.43%
Percentage of Total Emissions (1990-2019)0.03%
GDP Per Capita (USD)$136k
Emissions Per Capita16.0

In the last recorded year (2019), Luxembourg was the world’s 142nd largest producer of yearly carbon dioxide emissions and contributed 0.02% of all global emissions. The top three emitters in the same period were China, the United States, and India. These three nations produced 25.2%, 12%, and 7% of global emissions respectively.

In 2019, Luxembourg emitted 10.2m metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, or MtCO₂e. This represented an increase in emissions from 2018 by 1.7%.

Emissions per capita in Luxembourg – average household carbon footprint

The population of Luxembourg is 639k. On a per capita basis, they produce 16.0 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) per person. This places them 21st out of 191 on emissions produced per capita. The top three emitters per capita are Solomon Islands, Qatar, and Kuwait.

What is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in Luxembourg?

In 2019, Luxembourg produced 10.5m metric tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions. This was an increase of 1.7% from 2018. 90.5% of these emissions came from CO2, 5.3% came from CH4, and 3.6% came from N2O.

The sector that produced the most emissions in 2019 was the energy industry. Energy produced 9.31m of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This amounted to 88.8% of total GHG in Luxembourg. The second and third largest emitting sectors were bunker fuels and agriculture- producing 17.3% and 6.2% of total GHG respectively.


The industry that produced the most energy related emissions was the transportation sector, emitting 6.36m tonnes of greenhouse gas. The second and third largest emitting sectors were building and manufacturing/construction – producing 1.64m and 962k tonnes of GHG each.

Land Use Change and Forestry

Land use change and forestry (LUCF), such as deforestation and conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural or urban areas, can have a significant impact on carbon emissions.

  • Trees and other vegetation absorb and store carbon through the process of photosynthesis, and when they are cut down or burned, that stored carbon is released into the atmosphere.
  • Deforestation and other forms of land use change can also reduce the ability of ecosystems to absorb and store carbon in the future. Additionally, the conversion of land for agriculture or urban development can lead to the release of carbon stored in the soil.
  • On the other hand, sustainable forestry practices, such as reforestation and afforestation, can help to remove carbon from the atmosphere and store it in trees and other vegetation.

In the case of Luxembourg, their LUCF had a positive impact on their emissions, reducing their footprint by 278k tonnes.

After accounting for land use change and forestry, the total amount of greenhouse emissions in Luxembourg in 2019 was 10.2m metric tonnes.

Is there a correlation between greenhouse gas emissions and economic growth?

In 2019, gross domestic product (GDP) in Luxembourg declined by -1.5% from the previous year. Measured in US dollars, the economy went from $71.3bn to $70.2bn. In the same period carbon emissions increased by 1.7%. Over a ten year period from 2009 to 2019, GDP grew by 28.9%, while emissions have decreased by -6.6%.

To put this into context, the compound annual growth rate of GDP in Luxembourg over the previous ten years was 2.6% and the CAGR for greenhouse gas emissions was -0.68%.

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